Tooth decay (Dental caries) can be defined as chemical dissolution of hand tissue of the teeth by acidic bacterial products.
The cavities may be of different colors from yellow to black.
Causes: The most common cause of cavity plague which accumulates around the teeth or below the fillings, thereby making them prone to tooth decay.
Saliva acts an excellent buffer and provides natural immunity agent dental caries. Therefor in people having reduced saliva flow caries incidence is very high.
The enamel on kids teeth is not as hard as adult. Thus progression of caries is very fat.
Prevention: To prevent cavities , the first step is to brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride containing tooth paste. It is preferable to brush teeth before going to bed and rinse your mouth thoroughly after every meal.
It also important to clean your teeth daily with dental floss or Interdental brush.
There are lots of videos available to floss or how to use interdental brushes.
Rinse your mouth twice daily with a mouthwash containing chlorhexidine preferable before going to bed.
Note: If you are a mouth breather than you are at high risk for tooth decay because of dry mouth ( decreased salivary flow).
Visit your dentist regularly for dental check up.
Professional cleaning is recommended for everyone at every 6 months gap.
Avoid junk food, chips, pizza, burger, chocolates which easily stick to your teeth and increases the favorable environment for bacteria to produce.
Cure: if cavities occurs then go for the treatment. May be its has not spreaded to the inner layer (pulp). Filling is the only option for superficial cavities but once it goes to the nerve then the only option is Root Canal Treatment (RCT) followed by Crown.
For kids also pulpectomy & Crowns are the option in deep cavities.